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Elias Harris
Elias Harris

K Kumar Inorganic Chemistry Pdf 27l

Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry is an international peer-reviewed journal. It is a monthly periodical that covers the following topics of research: the synthesis and properties of inorganic compounds, coordination compounds, physicochemical analysis of inorganic systems, theoretical inorganic chemistry, physical methods of investigation, chemistry of solutions, inorganic materials, and nanomaterials. The journal welcomes manuscripts from all countries.

K Kumar Inorganic Chemistry Pdf 27l

Nanotechnology is shown to bridge the barrier of biological and physical sciences by applying nanostructures and nanophases at various fields of science [11]; specially in nanomedicine and nano based drug delivery systems, where such particles are of major interest [12, 13]. Nanomaterials can be well-defined as a material with sizes ranged between 1 and 100 nm, which influences the frontiers of nanomedicine starting from biosensors, microfluidics, drug delivery, and microarray tests to tissue engineering [14,15,16]. Nanotechnology employs curative agents at the nanoscale level to develop nanomedicines. The field of biomedicine comprising nanobiotechnology, drug delivery, biosensors, and tissue engineering has been powered by nanoparticles [17]. As nanoparticles comprise materials designed at the atomic or molecular level, they are usually small sized nanospheres [18]. Hence, they can move more freely in the human body as compared to bigger materials. Nanoscale sized particles exhibit unique structural, chemical, mechanical, magnetic, electrical, and biological properties. Nanomedicines have become well appreciated in recent times due to the fact that nanostructures could be utilized as delivery agents by encapsulating drugs or attaching therapeutic drugs and deliver them to target tissues more precisely with a controlled release [10, 19]. Nanomedicine, is an emerging field implementing the use of knowledge and techniques of nanoscience in medical biology and disease prevention and remediation. It implicates the utilization of nanodimensional materials including nanorobots, nanosensors for diagnosis, delivery, and sensory purposes, and actuate materials in live cells (Fig. 1). For example, a nanoparticle-based method has been developed which combined both the treatment and imaging modalities of cancer diagnosis [20]. The very first generation of nanoparticle-based therapy included lipid systems like liposomes and micelles, which are now FDA-approved [21]. These liposomes and micelles can contain inorganic nanoparticles like gold or magnetic nanoparticles [22]. These properties let to an increase in the use of inorganic nanoparticles with an emphasis on drug delivery, imaging and therapeutics functions. In addition, nanostructures reportedly aid in preventing drugs from being tarnished in the gastrointestinal region and help the delivery of sparingly water-soluble drugs to their target location. Nanodrugs show higher oral bioavailability because they exhibit typical uptake mechanisms of absorptive endocytosis.

Metallic, organic, inorganic and polymeric nanostructures, including dendrimers, micelles, and liposomes are frequently considered in designing the target-specific drug delivery systems. In particular, those drugs having poor solubility with less absorption ability are tagged with these nanoparticles [17, 29]. However, the efficacy of these nanostructures as drug delivery vehicles varies depending on the size, shape, and other inherent biophysical/chemical characteristics. For instance, polymeric nanomaterials with diameters ranging from 10 to 1000 nm, exhibit characteristics ideal for an efficient delivery vehicle [7]. Because of their high biocompatibility and biodegradability properties, various synthetic polymers such as polyvinyl alcohol, poly-l-lactic acid, polyethylene glycol, and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), and natural polymers, such as alginate and chitosan, are extensively used in the nanofabrication of nanoparticles [8, 30,31,32]. Polymeric nanoparticles can be categorized into nanospheres and nanocapsules both of which are excellent drug delivery systems. Likewise, compact lipid nanostructures and phospholipids including liposomes and micelles are very useful in targeted drug delivery.

The use of ideal nano-drug delivery system is decided primarily based on the biophysical and biochemical properties of the targeted drugs being selected for the treatment [8]. However, problems such as toxicity exhibited by nanoparticles cannot be ignored when considering the use of nanomedicine. More recently, nanoparticles have mostly been used in combination with natural products to lower the toxicity issues. The green chemistry route of designing nanoparticles loaded with drugs is widely encouraged as it minimises the hazardous constituents in the biosynthetic process. Thus, using green nanoparticles for drug delivery can lessen the side-effects of the medications [19]. Moreover, adjustments in nanostructures size, shape, hydrophobicity, and surface changes can further enhance the bioactivity of these nanomaterials.

ObjectiveBotanica Marina publishes high-quality contributions from all of the disciplines of marine botany at all levels of biological organisation from subcellular to ecosystem: chemistry and applications, genomics, physiology and ecology, phylogeny and biogeography. Research involving global or interdisciplinary interest is especially welcome. Applied science papers are appreciated, particularly when they illustrate the application of emerging conceptual issues or promote developing technologies. The journal invites state-of-the art reviews dealing with recent developments in marine botany.

Bagasse has the potential to enhance soil quality, increase crop yields, and improve environmental quality. Application of bagasse on mineral soils can alter soil physicochemical properties. For example, bulk density (BD) and pH can be lowered due to bagasse's inherently low BD (0.10 g/cm3) and pH (4.0 0.1) (Figure 3). The ability to lower soil pH is uniquely important to growers in south Florida because of the calcium carbonate associated with the underlying bedrock. This may not universally be the case because native soils in Florida are typically acidic, and increased soil pH is often associated with management practices such as irrigation, soil fertility, etc. Bagasse can also improve soil water-holding capacity, organic matter (OM) content, and nutrient concentration of elements, such as potassium (K), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), that are essential for plant growth when applied on depleted soils. Due to its high OM content (95%), bagasse has a high water-holding capacity (WHC) (50 4.7%). The high OM content implies that the material could also mineralize quickly and benefits would be short-lived. In terms of WHC, sandy soils of Florida have larger pores than finer-textured soils, making it more difficult to hold soil water against gravity; consequently, sandy soils have a lower capacity to store soil water for plant uptake (Bhadha et al. 2017). Bagasse also has high nutrient content that is beneficial for plant growth. For example, bagasse can contain up to 263 mg/kg P, 997 mg/kg K, and up to 2.7% N (Figure 3). In terms of P-use efficiency associated with calcareous soils, mineralization of bagasse could produce organic acids that can mobilize the insoluble P from soil to soil solution. Bagasse has also been found as the best substrate to support growth of cellulolytic and ligninolytic microorganisms (Poonam and Prabhu 1986). Bagasse application has the potential to offset fertilizer application. It can be used in combination with inorganic chemical fertilizers (Dotaniya et al. 2016).

Sugarcane bagasse contains a high C:N ratio (Nisrane 2017; Torkashvand et al. 2008). This could initially immobilize some of the N from the soil, and potentially release nitrate later when mineralization sets in (Dotaniya 2016). Singh and Aulakh (2001) reported that the immobilization caused by the incorporation of high C:N ratio crop residue could be balanced by application of inorganic fertilizer N. Nitrogen mineralization rate depends upon the composition of organic material (i.e., C:N ratio

Correspondence to: Prof. B. Mohan Kumar, Arunachal University of Studies, Knowledge City, Namsai 792103, Arunachal Pradesh, India. E-mail: ;

55. Raut N, Dörsch P, Sitaula BK, Bakken LR. Soil acidification by intensified crop production in South Asia results in higher N2O/(N2 + N2O) product ratios of denitrification. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2012;55:104-12.

82. Vijayakumar K, Safai P, Devara P, Rao SVB, Jayasankar C. Effects of agriculture crop residue burning on aerosol properties and long-range transport over northern India: a study using satellite data and model simulations. Atmospheric Research 2016;178-179:155-63.

103. Das S, Adhya T. Dynamics of methanogenesis and methanotrophy in tropical paddy soils as influenced by elevated CO2 and temperature interaction. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 2012;47:36-45.

The properties of silica materials considered essential for their potential toxicity are crystallinity, particle size and morphology, porosity, chemical purity, surface chemistry and solubility [26]. An overview of the properties of silica materials involved in silica toxicity is provided in Table 1.

The hydrophilicity of a silica material increases with the number of silanols, or silicon-bonded hydroxyl groups, capable of forming hydrogen bonds with physical water molecules. The chemical formula of silica is represented as SiO2.xH2O, in which water represents chemical water contained in silanol groups present on the surface of the silica material. These water molecules are not to be confused with crystal water, such as that present in many inorganic salt crystals. The surface chemistry of silica is depicted in Figure 5. Vicinal hydroxyl groups (one hydroxyl group per tetrahedron) located at mutual distances smaller than 3 nm are engaged in hydrogen bonding. Geminal hydroxyls (2 hydroxyl groups per tetrahedron) are considered to occur in minor concentrations. Isolated silanols are positioned too far apart to be engaged in hydrogen bonding. Because of the differing chemistry of these 3 types of silanol groups, they are not all equivalent in their adsorption behavior or chemical reactivity. Vicinal hydroxyls interact strongly with water molecules and are responsible for the excellent water adsorption properties of silica, which are exploited in industrial gas drying operations, for example.

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